Trace Elements


Copper is found in meat and bones. It is associated with the function of many enzyme systems and is linked with iron metabolism. Copper deficiency can result in anemia and bone abnormalities.


Iron is found in meat, green veggies, eggs, and cereals. It is essential for hemoglobin formation and subsequent oxygen transportation throughout the body. Iron deficiency can result in anemia, associated with lethargy and poor appetite. Iron in excessive amounts is toxic and can cause loss of weight and appetite.


Iodine is found in veggies, dairy products, salt, and fish. It plays an important role in the production of thyroid hormones. Iodine deficiency results in increased activity of the thyroid gland in attempt to compensate for the iodine deficiency. Sign include swollen thyroid gland, hair and skin abnormalities along with lethargy. Excess iodine can impair the production of the thyroid hormone and cause thyroid gland malfunction.


Manganese is found in many foods and plays a role in the enzyme systems. A deficiency affects growth and reproduction as well as fat metabolism. Excess manganese can lead to poor fertility and anemia.


Selenium is found in meat, fish, and cereals. Selenium deficiency can cause degeneration of the skeletal and cardiac muscle. Excess selenium can be highly toxic.


Zinc is found in meat as well as many other foods. It plays a function in enzyme activity and protein synthesis. Zinc availability to the pet is adversely affected by a high dietary calcium and phytic acid which is found in cereals. Zinc deficiency is a cause of poor growth, depressed appetite, weight loss, poor skin and coat condition, and shrinkage of the testicles. Zinc is relatively non toxic.

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